The Impact of Obesity on your health and body

Obesity

Obesity is a serious issue that can have a negative effect on many systems that increase your risk of several health problems. The BMI is a single number that evaluates an individual’s weight status in relation to height weight/height2), with weight in kilograms and height in metres). At times, people gain weight due to medical conditions like polycystic ovary syndrome(Pcos) and hypothyrodism.

Obesity is defined as a body mass index (BMI) of 30 kg/m2 or more. The greater your BMI ,the greater the risk of conditions such as diabetes and many more. The average BMI IS 19-25.

Overweight and obesity may increase the risk of many health problems, including diabetes, heart disease, and certain cancers. If you are pregnant, excess weight may lead to short- and long-term health problems for you and your child.

This fact sheet tells you more about the links between excess weight and many health conditions. It also explains how reaching and maintaining a normal weight may help you and your loved ones stay healthier as you grow older.

Excess weight may increase the risk for many health problems, including

obesity
Obesity
  • Type 2 diabetes
  • High blood pressure
  • Heart disease and strokes
  • Certain types of cancer
  • Sleep apnea
  • Osteoarthritis
  • Fatty liver disease
  • Kidney disease
  • PCOD
  • Infertility
  • Depression

Diabetes and Obesity
There are many risk factors for type 2 diabetes such as age, race, pregnancy, stress, certain medications, genetics or family history, high cholesterol and obesity. However, the single best predictor of type 2 diabetes is overweight or obesity. Almost 90% of people living with type 2 diabetes are overweight or have obesity. People who are overweight or have obesity have added pressure on their body’s ability to use insulin to properly control blood sugar levels,and are therefore more likely to develop diabetes

Blood Pressure and Obesity
Being overweight and/or obese can cause high blood pressure in a variety of ways. When there is increased weight it takes more pressure to move the blood around the body. When the weight gain is in the abdominal area there is a greater risk for high blood pressure because this type of fat is more likely to cause the arteries to become thick and stiff says Dr Ravindra Vats senior Consultant department of Bariatric and Surgical Gastroenterolgy BLK Super speciality Hospital New Delhi. When the pipes (the blood vessels) get stiff it is harder to push the blood through. When it gets hard to move blood around the body there is an increase in adrenalin. This will increase salt retention and further increase blood pressure.

The good news is that when you lose weight (even a small amount) the blood pressure can go down and the blood vessels can lose their stiffness.

Heart disease and Obesity
Most of the comorbidities relating obesity to coronary artery disease increases as bmi increases they also relate to body fat distribution .Long-term longitudinal studies,however indicate that obesity as such not only relates to but independently predicts coronary artherosclerosis.

Cancer and Obesity
Extra fat in the body can have harmful effects, like producing hormones and growth factors that affect the way our cells work. Fat cells in the body are active and produce hormones and proteins that are released into the bloodstream and carried around the body. Because they are spread through the circulation, these ‘chemical messengers’ can affect many parts of the body, and increase the risk of several different types of cancer. Fat cells can also attract immune cells to body tissues. These immune cells release chemicals that cause long-lasting inflammation which can raise the risk of cancer.

Sleep apnea and obesity
OSA is a common and serious disorder in which breathing repeatedly stops for 10 seconds or more during sleep. The disorder results in decreased oxygen in the blood and can briefly awaken sleepers throughout the night. Sleep apnea has many different possible causes. In adults, the most common cause of osa is excess weight and obesity, which is associated with soft tissue of the mouth and throat. During sleep, when throat and tongue muscles are more
relaxed, this soft tissue can cause the airway to become blocked

Osteoarthritis and obesity
Being overweight or obese puts extra stress on your joints, especially those in your knees, making it a major risk factor for developing osteoarthritis (OA). For every KG you are overweight, you are adding pressure on your knees.The extra wear and tear from extra weight greatly increases your risk of eventually getting osteoarthritis in these joints or may require knee replacement. Weight loss and a regular exercise program can help prevent OA and help you manage it better if you already have it

Infertility and Obesity
Fertility can be negatively affected by obesity. In women, early onset of obesity favours the development of menses irregularities, chronic oligo-anovulation and infertility in the adult age. Obesity in women can also increase risk of miscarriages and impair the outcomes of assisted reproductive technologies and pregnancy, when the body mass index exceeds 30 kg/m. The main factors implicated in the association may be insulin excess and insulin resistance.
These adverse effects of obesity are specifically evident in polycystic ovary syndrome. In men, obesity is associated with low testosterone levels. In massively obese individuals, reduced spermatogenesis associated with severe hypotestosteronemia may favour infertility. Moreover, the frequency of erectile dysfunction increases with increasing body mass index. The baby born to a obese female to develop similar problems in his or her future life.

Combining exercise with a healthy diet is a more effective way to lose weight than depending on calorie restriction alone. Exercise can prevent or even reverse the effects of certain diseases. Exercise lowers blood pressure and cholesterol, which may prevent a heart attack. n addition, if you exercise, you lower your risk of developing certain types of cancers such as colon and breast cancer. Exercise is also known to help contribute to a sense of confidence and well- being, thus possibly lowering rates of anxiety and depression.

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